Welcome to POCUS Journal

POCUS Journal is a free, open-access, peer-reviewed publication that contains original research, case reports, and protocols on point of care ultrasound.

A publication of CINQUILL Medical Publishers Inc., POCUS Journal publishes online biannually in April and November. We invite submissions from clinicians, researchers, and POCUS educators. Read the latest issue of POCUS Journal or visit the archive for past issues.

Explore our Education section to learn about POCUS, and stay up to date with our latest Podcasts.

POCUS Journal is indexed on PubMed Central.

If you would like to become a contributor or have your research featured in POCUS Journal, please visit our Author Center for submission guidelines. For all other inquiries, please use our contact form, thanks.


Articles in this issue


Inside the November 2023 Issue

Benjamin T. Galen - This is a very exciting time for POCUS Journal. As the world’s leading point of care ultrasound journal, we remain free for both authors and readers.  Our content brings the POCUS community together as we strive to showcase POCUS use by clinicians from a wide variety of fields in every possible [...]


High Tech POCUS Education in Remote Environments: An App Review

Jeremy J. Webb; Chad Mosby; John Stadnyk; Michael Jones - In recent years, the development of hand-held devices have intrigued POCUS enthusiasts due to improved affordability, portability, and ease of use. They also provide extra functionality for image storage and transmission for remote provider-to-provider communication and review. Due to these capabilities, portable ultrasound has found [...]


Rekindling the Relevance of Obstetrical Transvaginal POCUS: Overcoming Barriers to Ensure Patient-Centered Care

Alexis Salerno; Resa E. Lewiss - The transvaginal pelvic point of care ultrasound (POCUS) examination remains a patient-centered and relevant examination. Since 2008, emergency medicine physicians are required to learn, perform, and interpret POCUS examinations to deliver safe and patient-centered diagnostic and procedural care. Pelvic POCUS is one of these core applications in the emergency [...]

Innovations in POCUS Curriculum

Obstetric-Focused POCUS Training for Medical Students

Koral Cohen; Jennifer Kidd; Emily Schill; Agata Kantorowska; Wendy Kinzler; Martin Chavez - Point of care ultrasound (POCUS) is rapidly expanding throughout the United States. Due to its ability to quickly and accurately diagnose and guide therapy for critical conditions, POCUS is becoming routine in many specialties, with established guidelines in fields such as emergency [...]

Case File

Asteroid Hyalosis: A Mimicker of Vitreous Hemorrhage on Point of Care Ultrasound: A Case Report.

Eniola C. Gros; Lauren R. McCafferty - Ocular point of care ultrasound (POCUS) can help make timely recognition of multiple emergent ocular conditions and differentiate these from more benign conditions. While asteroid hyalosis (AH) is benign, it can easily mimic the more potentially serious vitreous hemorrhage on ocular POCUS, as both consist of numerous echogenic [...]

Case File

The Use of Point of Care Ultrasound in Diagnosis of Peritonsillar Abscess

Brian Kohen; Melanie Perez; Jheanelle McKay; Rolando Zamora; Curtis Xu - The use of point of care ultrasound (POCUS) for diagnosis and treatment of peritonsillar abscess (PTA) is increasing [1]. Proven advantages include improved diagnostic accuracy and treatment success rates as well as decreased otolaryngology consultation, computed tomography (CT) usage, return visits to the emergency [...]

Case File

Acute Type A Aortic Dissection Diagnosed by POCUS in a 29-year-old Man

Vladimir Cárdenas López; Pablo Blanco - Aortic dissection (AD) is a medical emergency with a poor prognosis if not recognized early and treated promptly. In this setting, clinical data may be equivocal, while electrocardiogram, laboratory tests, and chest radiography often show nonspecific findings. In contrast, cardiac point of care ultrasound (POCUS) has proven useful in [...]

Case File

Cough Causing Abdominal Pain? A Rapid POCUS Diagnosis of Rectus Sheath Hematoma

William Noel; Brian B. Donahue - A 59-year-old man with past medical history including obesity status post gastric banding surgery and atrial fibrillation on rivaroxaban, presented to the emergency department with a complaint of focal pain to his right abdomen along with areas of visible bruising. He noted that since his diagnosis of COVID-19 a [...]

Case File

The Importance of Serial POCUS Exams – Dual Pathologies in Play

Rahul Nair; Jonathan Zuo; Ariel L. Shiloh - Serial point of care ultrasound (POCUS) exams are essential to assess acute pericardial effusions which can rapidly evolve into cardiac tamponade. A typical presentation includes dyspnea, tachycardia, and chest pain. Importantly, serial cardiac exams in such high-risk patients can detect other concurrent pathologies. We present an unusual [...]

Case File

Optimizing Care for High-Risk Multiple Pregnancy with POCUS – A Case of Quadruplet Pregnancy Early Diagnosis

Bernardo Vidal Pimentel; Christopher Tsoutsoulas; Kristin Lythgoe; Frank Myslik - Managing multiple pregnancies is challenging and requires careful evaluation. Point of care ultrasound (POCUS) has emerged as a potentially crucial tool in assessing suspected first-trimester pregnancies. However, its role in evaluating multiple pregnancies remains uncertain. We present the case of a 36-year-old Ghanaian female who [...]

Case File

Role of POCUS in Assessing an Acute Aortic Thrombus

Zachary Boivin; Emily Mensel; Trent She - A 67-year-old female patient with a past medical history of hypertension presented to the emergency department (ED) with abdominal pain. She reported intermittent palpitations for the past three months, fevers for one week, and a recent admission three days prior for a pleural effusion and atrial fibrillation.

Case Report

Renal Transplant Artery Stenosis and Kinking: An Unusual Association

R. Haridian Sosa Barrios; V. Burguera Vion; E. Casillas Sagrado; D. Villa Hurtado; S. Jiménez Álvaro; I. Martín Capón; M. Fernández Lucas; Maite E. Rivera Gorrín - Renal artery stenosis of the kidney allograft is an infrequent finding, as is mechanical kinking of the artery. The right renal artery's greater length in comparison to the [...]

Case Report

Troubleshooting Paracentesis Using POCUS

Angelina Voronina; Nachele Aurelien; Edward Bergin; Paula Roy-Burman - Paracentesis is a procedure routinely performed at the bedside in the evaluation and management of ascites. While point of care ultrasound (POCUS) assistance during paracentesis is known to reduce the risk of procedure-related complications, intraprocedural POCUS to overcome commonly occurring issues, such as obstructed flow through [...]

Case Report

Twinkle Artifact Observed During POCUS of a Human Myiasis Caused by the Dermatobia hominis Botfly

David Jerome; Matthew Stacey; Joseph Newbigging - An 81-year-old man presented to urgent care for assessment of an area of erythema and tenderness on his right thigh after recent travel to Belize. Point of care ultrasound (POCUS) revealed a hyperechoic structure with acoustic shadowing in the subcutaneous tissue. Colour Doppler assessment of the structure produced [...]

Innovations in POCUS Curriculum

Dissemination of a Pediatric Musculoskeletal POCUS Scoring System via Virtual Education: A Proof-of-Concept Study

Ysabella Esteban; Jackeline Rodriguez-Smith; Marie Tominna; Amy Cassedy; Arthur B. Meyers; Michael Henrickson; Tracy V. Ting; Patricia Vega-Fernandez - Point of care pediatric musculoskeletal POCUS scanning and scoring protocols for childhood arthritis have emerged in recent years. However, pediatric musculoskeletal POCUS curricula in rheumatology fellowship programs are limited due to availability of trained faculty and [...]


A Prospective Cohort Study to Evaluate Needle Passes Using a Portable Ultrasound Device versus Traditional Landmark Approach for Epidural Anesthesia in a Busy Obstetric Tertiary Care Center

Antonio Gonzalez Fiol; Pedro Acevedo Rodriguez; Xiwen Zhao; Robert Gaiser; Adriana Herrera; Aymen Alian - Despite its many cited benefits, ultrasound guidance for neuraxial procedures is not widespread in anesthesiology. Some cited limitations include device cost and accessibility. We test the hypothesis that a handheld and relatively inexpensive ultrasound can improve neuraxial proficiency (e.g., decreased [...]


Can Untrained Patients Perform Their Own Skin and Soft Tissue Ultrasound Examination by Teleguidance?

Ammar Saati; Arthur Au; Aditi U. Joshi; Rebecca Davis; Frances Mae West; Resa E. Lewiss - The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic accelerated the use of telehealth with consumer adoption increasing from 11% in 2019 to 46% in 2020 [1,2]. A telehealth visit often replaced an in-person office visit for infection control and safety to the patient and [...]


Brain Point of Care Ultrasound in Young Children Receiving Computed Tomography in the Emergency Department: A Proof of Concept Study

Stephanie R. Davenport; Nadya Ben Fadel; Jorge Davila; Nick Barrowman; Vid Bijelic; Allan E. Shefrin - Over the last 15 years, point of care ultrasound (POCUS) has emerged as one of the most important and most utilized tools in pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) [1,2]. What was initially used as a screening tool in the assessment [...]


The Use of POCUS-Obtained Optic Nerve Sheath Diameter in Intracerebral Hemorrhage

Alireza Nathani; Shekhar A. Ghamande; Sarita Kambhampati; Braden Anderson; Matthew Lohse; Heath D. White - Intracerebral  hemorrhage (ICH) results in spontaneous bleeding into the brain. In the United States, it accounts for 10-15% of all strokes [1]. It is associated with very high morbidity and in-hospital mortality of 32.4% [2]. In adults, the intracranial compartment [...]


Handheld Lung Ultrasound to Detect COVID-19 Pneumonia in Inpatients: A Prospective Cohort Study

Thomas F. Heyne; Kay Negishi; Daniel S. Choi; Ahad A. Al Saud; Lucas X. Marinacci; Patrick Y. Smithedajkul; Lily R. Devaraj; Brent P. Little; Dexter P. Mendoza; Efren J. Flores; Milena Petranovic; Steven P. Toal; Hamid Shokoohi; Andrew S. Liteplo; Benjamin P. Geisler - Even as newer viral variants have proven less deadly than the [...]


Association of Internal Medicine Point of Care Ultrasound (POCUS) with Length of Stay, Hospitalization Costs, and Formal Imaging: a Prospective Cohort Study

David M. Tierney; Terry K. Rosborough; Lynn M. Sipsey; Kai Hanson; Claire S. Smith; Lori L. Boland; Robert Miner - Point of care ultrasound (POCUS) use has rapidly expanded among internal medicine (IM) physicians in practice and residency training programs. Many benefits have been established; however, studies demonstrating the impact of POCUS on system metrics [...]


The Impact of a Handheld Ultrasound Device in a Rheumatic Heart Disease Screening Program in Ethiopia

Zachary P. Kaltenborn; Anteneh Zewde; Jonathan D. Kirsch; Michelle Yates; Katelyn M. Tessier; Eileen Nemec; Ronald A. Johannsen - Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) affects 33 million people in low and middle income countries and is the leading cause of cardiovascular death among children and young adults. Penicillin prophylaxis prevents progression in asymptomatic disease. Efforts to [...]


Critical Care Ultrasound Competency of Fellows and Faculty in Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine: A Nationwide Survey

Mark H. Adelman; Himanshu Deshwal; Deepak Pradhan - Competency assessment standards for Critical Care Ultrasonography (CCUS) for Graduate Medical Education (GME) trainees in pulmonary/critical care medicine (PCCM) fellowship programs are lacking. We sought to answer the following research questions: How are PCCM fellows and teaching faculty assessed for CCUS competency? Which CCUS teaching methods are [...]


Carotid Flow Time Compared with Invasive Monitoring as a Predictor of Volume Responsiveness in ICU patients

Tomislav Jelic; Jordan Chenkin - Identifying patients who will have an increase in their cardiac output from volume administration is difficult to identify. We propose the use of carotid flow time, which is a non-invasive means to determine if a patient is volume responsive.


Prevalence of Phantom Scanning in Cardiac Arrest and Trauma Resuscitations: The Scary Truth

Zachary Boivin; Curtis Xu; Donias Doko; Meghan Kelly Herbst; Trent She - The prevalence of phantom scanning, or point of care ultrasound (POCUS) performed without saving images, has not been well studied. Phantom scanning can negatively affect patient care, reduce billed revenue, and can increase medicolegal liability. We sought to quantify and compare the prevalence [...]


Venous Excess Ultrasound (VExUS) Grading to Assess Perioperative Fluid Status for Noncardiac Surgeries: a Prospective Observational Pilot Study

Justin C. Magin; Jacob R. Wrobel; Xinming An; Jacob Acton; Alexander Doyal; Shawn Jia; James C. Krakowski; Jay Schoenherr; Ricardo Serrano; David Flynn; Duncan McLean; Stuart A. Grant - Perioperative fluid administration impacts the rate of complications following surgery. VExUS grading system is a standardized point of care ultrasound (POCUS)-based, comprehensive method to assess volume [...]


Effectiveness of Ultrasound-guided versus Landmark-based Glucocorticoid Injection in the Treatment of First Carpometacarpal Joint Osteoarthritis 

Shamma Ahmad Al-Nokhatha; Sinead Maguire; Luke Corcoran; Neil Mac Eoin; Richard Conway; Ciaran Johnson - Osteoarthritis is a debilitating degenerative disease more pronounced in elderly affecting many joints. The first carpometacarpal joint (CMC1) is commonly affected. Pain is the major complaint, which can impact patient’s daily activities. Intra-articular glucocorticoid injection can be considered if conservative [...]


Exploring the Applicability of Pre-Anesthetic Cardiac POCUS in Unexpected Conditions: Could it be Helpful?

Rodolfo C. Sabogal - Formal preoperative echocardiography has traditionally been recommended when there is substantial cardiovascular disease without recent follow up, unexplained dyspnea, a functional class less than 4 METS or a Duke Activity Status Index less than 34. However, it is important to note that certain patients may present with a variety of cardiac [...]